Updated: Jun 9
Globally, the new castle disease (ND) is one of the most common and fatal viral disease in poultry at the commercial as well as small scale production flocks. The ND is caused by Paramyxoviridae virus. The disease was discovered for the first time in the area of Newcastle-on-Tyne, England in 1927. The virulence of the virus depends on the serotype of the virus itself and the host type. Mostly, susceptible in the chicken as compared to other birds.
The disease is very contagious and spreads to other birds rapidly. The first sign appears between 2-15 days. Sometime the attack of the virus is so strong that the birds may die without showing any symptom.
Possible transmission possibilities are:
Direct contact with infected birds, feces, or other body secretions
Through the air, coughing and sneezing from infected birds
Contaminated equipment, clothing, footwear etc.
Predators can also spread the disease from one farm to another
Mortality can be up to 100%.
The most common three major symptoms present:
Respiratory problems (breathing by open mouth, coughing, sneezing)
Nervous Problems (twisting of the head and neck, circling, tremors, paralysis)
Reduction in egg production and eggshell quality
Early signs and less acute disease involves:
Green, watery diarrhea
Loss of appetite
There is NOT any treatment available for the ND. However, antibiotics can be used to prevent secondary infections.
Vaccination and the biosecurity measures are the only possibilities to avoid the disease.
Prohibit the visitors to the poultry farm
No unnecessary vehicles to the premises
Sperate uniform/ clothing for the farm visit
If possible, take bath before visiting commercial poultry farm
Maintain an effective rodent-control program
Clean and disinfect the farm and the premises regularly
Wash hands and use hand sanitizers before and after visiting your birds
Commonly used vaccine:
Newcastle Disease Vaccine (LaSota Strain)